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Mind The Graph Scientific Blog is meant to help scientists learn how to communicate science in an uncomplicated way.
This Mind The Graph guide aims to teach you how to make citations in the simplest way using APA formatting.
Whether in research papers or any other type of document, tables are intended to contain quantitative information. Therefore, it is crucial that tables come along with legends to give the proper context to your audience.
This logic can be applied to figures as well. But it is important to highlight that there are peculiarities between each of them.
In this article, you will learn about figure and table legend definition, their differences, and also get useful tips on how to present them according to your chosen journal’s guidelines.
As well as figures, tables are visual resources mostly used to illustrate complex subjects and also present data you collect along the research phase.
Also known as “table title”, a table legend is a complement to your table’s content. Its main purpose is to support the table’s information so your readers get the right conclusion from your research. Likewise, it is great to help them interpret the meaning of the underlying results if there are any.
The same applies to figure legends. But there are certain differences between them that you must consider.
After the research itself, the visuals are the most important asset in your research paper. They are responsible for attracting readers, including the ones that do not exactly have a science background.
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Assuming that a figure can be interpreted in many ways, a figure legend needs to contain more details, and that already makes them larger than table legends in general. Another point is that they can be placed in a single paragraph, regardless if it is above or below the figure. That might vary according to the journal’s guidelines, so stay alert to all requirements.
On the other hand, table legends are quite short and they must come above the table.
The table footnote is placed right after the table and can be used to define abbreviated terms, indicate the meaning of superscript symbols (e.g., * to indicate P<0.05), and provide the reader with any other note that helps the understanding.
1. Journals do not want lists of numbers in the texts followed by a table containing the same numbers. Keep that in mind!
2. If you create a table that is quite short (only two or 3 rows and columns), consider summarizing the information in a sentence or two instead of using a table, because, in this case, a table legend will not be needed.
3. All tables used to illustrate your research must be cited in the text.
4. Number your tables (and also the figures) in the order that they appear in the text.
5. Consult the journal guidelines before submitting your research paper to raise its relevance inside the publication.
In this example extracted from one of our Success Cases page, the author used the table legend as a way to contextualize the reader so the results could be understood as a whole. You can read the full article here.
In general, it depends on the journal’s publication requirements. A good tip that will not cost you any time is to look at a recently published paper from your target journal for examples. That might give you the right direction to follow with your research document.
It would be best if you also kept in mind that the word “table” must never be abbreviated in in-text citations. It is always given simply as “Table” (e.g., Table 1). Another crucial point is that a table does not have parts like a, b, or c. If you have Table 1a and Table 1b, we recommend you merge them into one or split them into Table 1 and Table 2.
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A major dilemma frequently arises for an academic subject: should it be a conference paper or a journal paper? That is why, in order to do and refer to the right framework, you must first comprehend the essential distinction concerning the smallest things in papers.
This article will explain more about conference papers, the differences between them and journal papers, and how to write a high-quality one.
To begin, a conference is a place where academics, researchers, experts, and professionals deliver and present information after doing thorough research. As a result, a conference paper is essentially a mixture of a written document and an oral presentation.
Conference papers are brief and precise documents with a limited number of pages in which academics present the findings of their research investigations. In certain cases, conference papers are published in the conference proceedings, and in others, only chosen papers are published in the conference proceedings.
The primary distinction between a journal paper and a conference paper is that, while both require writing, journal papers are intended for publication in journals, whereas conference papers are intended for presentation at conferences and may be published in conference proceedings.
There are also significant distinctions in the reviewing process, with journal papers requiring a considerably more thorough and strict review. Furthermore, conference papers have fewer pages than journal papers, often limited to four to ten pages.
Each presentation may necessitate a different sort of conference paper since there are many. Learn about a few of them below.
In terms of formatting, the best method is to check with the conference to which your work is being submitted, since they may have specific formatting standards for the paper and abstract, such as margin size, page number usage, page limitation, and other aspects. Just remember that your conference paper should proceed logically from abstract to conclusions.
Remember to include graphic materials in your slides while creating a conference paper. Graphs, illustrations, and infographics can help you offer comprehension of the data you’re presenting. To improve your work, use the Mind The Graph tool.
Diabetes is a condition where you have a high blood sugar level and your system fails to have healthy sugar metabolism. It affects millions of people worldwide every year and has complications if not managed well. Read the article for understanding diabetes, its types, symptoms, and management.
Diabetes occurs when glucose or blood sugar gets too high than normal level. It is a result of an inactive lifestyle, obesity, or poor diet.
Let’s understand the physiology of our body for understanding diabetes and how it is caused.
Carbohydrates are the major source of energy and our food comprises them adequately.
In the process of digestion of food, carbohydrates break down into glucose and are carried through the bloodstream to various organs of the body. Insulin is produced in the pancreas and is necessary for glucose intake in the cells and it prevents excess sugar in the blood.
But when a person is suffering from diabetes, the production of insulin is affected (either reduced or restricted) and the target cells reject taking up the glucose. This results in the accumulation of excess glucose in the bloodstream and a rise in the blood sugar level.
Recommended blood glucose levels in diabetes patients:
When a person has a high blood sugar level and it isn’t controlled timely, it might lead to severe health issues. The following might be the complications of diabetes:
Popularly known as auto-immune disease or juvenile diabetes, this condition is dependent on insulin and is an immune system disorder. According to the CDC, 5-10% of total diabetic patients have Type 1 diabetes.
In type 1 diabetes, the person’s immune system attacks insulin-producing cells, thereby hindering the production of insulin, and therefore, you’ll need to take insulin dosage regularly to live. It is a hereditary disorder that generally occurs at an early age and is most probably observed in children and young adults.
This type is popularly known as insulin-resistant diabetes as the insulin is produced in the patient’s body but either it isn’t sufficient or doesn’t work correctly. While Type 2 diabetes isn’t as severe as Type 1, in this condition, your body doesn’t make sufficient insulin or fails to use the insulin properly, and this becomes the reason for a spike in blood sugar levels.
According to the CDC, 90-95% of total diabetic patients have Type 2 diabetes. It generally develops with aging but nowadays, it is also observed in children, teens, and young adults.
Gestational diabetes is a condition where insulin isn’t used effectively in a woman when she’s pregnant. It might disappear after childbirth but raises her child’s risk of getting obese. It also increases the risk of Type 2 diabetes in the mother and baby in the later stages.
Prediabetics is a condition when the blood sugar levels are on the borderline, i.e., higher than the normal level but lower than the type 2 diabetic conditions. With precautions, prediabetes can be avoided completely.
While there is no proven evidence to cure diabetes, following these changes can help you live with it without incurring severe health risks.
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As a researcher, getting your work published is only a job half done. It is equally important to immerse your readers in your scientific writing. You can expect more conversations about your research findings when your presentation captures the readers’ attention and conveys information clearly.
In the following article, I’ve highlighted three key steps that can help make your scientific writing more easy-to-understand, concise, and engaging. Read on and find out!
How do you keep from writing an incomprehensible piece that doesn’t bring much value to your readers?
Understanding your audience’s needs and the message you want to convey is essential for avoiding this circumstance. It’s good to have this at the back of your mind during the initial stages of drafting your piece.
When commencing with your writing, you should ask yourself three questions:
When writing a research paper or article, especially a scientific one, it’s a good practice to figure out the different sub-groups amongst the audience you are looking to target. For instance, a scientific research paper may interest undergraduate students, PhD scholars, professors, scientists, and others.
Sort these audiences into different groups and list them down. Figure out the answers to each of these questions:
Once you’ve figured out your target audience, the best way to get them to listen, engage, and act is to put yourself in their shoes and think about how they view your topic and what they care about.
What do they want to know most about the topic? In what form would they like to consume the information? How will the content relate to or interest them? — a quick internet research or a telephonic survey featuring your target audience should help you answer these questions.
While adjusting your message and communication style to suit your target audience, ensure that you stay focused on the core information you want to convey.
Keep the messaging simple and easy to comprehend. In addition, it should be accurate and coherent, with proper transitions between sentences or paragraphs so that your audience finds it easy to understand what you’re trying to say.
In their research titled The Science of Scientific Writing, authors George D. Gopen and Judith. A Swan aptly conveys, “If the reader is to grasp what the writer means, the writer must understand what the reader needs.” This idea should be the foundation for producing engaging scientific writing.
Flow in writing refers to how easily a reader can move through a text, continuing from one idea to the next. It is the impression of smoothness and continuity that a reader experiences when reading a piece of writing.
From a scientific perspective, when the writing is easy-to-follow and has a logical flow, readers will find it simpler to see how the different theories, hypotheses, arguments, models, and findings are connected. They understand how each piece fits into the big picture, what’s important in each section and how it all adds to a coherent whole.
Now the more important question is: How to create a logical flow in your writing?
Use precise and concise words, compose clear sentences that don’t contain unnecessary jargon or technical terms, and create well-structured paragraphs and sound arguments with logical connections. This logical flow ensures clarity and coherence when presenting academic arguments and allows readers to follow along as you explain concepts.
For scientific articles, logical flow is the key to achieving a smooth and orderly progression of ideas, sentences, paragraphs, and content as we reach a convincing conclusion. You can use logical flow to organize your thoughts and make your scientific writing more coherent by following a few fundamental principles:
Visualizing your experimental or statistical results is critical for your research manuscript.
While it might not seem particularly vital to your study’s outcome, visually presenting these results and findings can do wonders for comprehension — it will definitely come in handy during the review and publication process.
As a result, regardless of the topic or scope of your scientific writing, explaining concepts through figures, graphs, and tables is always a win-win situation.
Figures, graphs, and infographics help break up text and make your work more engaging. They also keep readers engaged by providing an alternative way to process the information, especially when you’ve lengthy technical and complicated text blocks.
Additionally, visuals improve the readability and scannability of your research writing, making it more accessible for the unversed.
For example: Say your research talks about how a new solar panel works. A simple diagram demonstrating how the panel converts sunlight into electricity would make it much easier for the readers to understand the process than theoretically explaining the science involved.
Data visualizations can take different forms, such as bar graphs, frequency histograms, scatterplots, drawings, etc. So when using figures in your academic paper, it is crucial to know when to use what.
You have to consider the kind of data you’ve, where you plan to insert the visual, the presentation format, and the target audience. Knowing these will help you make an appropriate choice. Also, remember the specific rules and limitations for using figures, graphs, and tables set by different publishers.
When creating or using data visualization elements in your research paper, keep the following points in mind:
The best visualizations blend with the surroundings, enabling viewers to focus on the presented information. They help viewers decipher the data and make meaningful conclusions without disrupting the reading experience.
Using colors with high contrast or texts to label elements significantly improves readability. Sticking to more basic font types such as serif or sans serif also helps. Similarly, a font size of 16 pixels is ideal for research published on the web.
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The quality of scientific writing depends significantly on clarity and presenting facts and findings appropriately so that readers can form a clear picture of the concepts in their minds. It is a skill that can be learned, practiced, and improved. With the right approach to writing, you can become an expert at crafting a scientific paper that will catch your readers’ attention and win their favor.
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Do you have to use APA formatting? Everything you need to know is right here.
If you’ve never used this format before, you may notice that it differs significantly compared to many of the writing styles and guidelines you’ve previously employed.
Although APA formatting and citation are not challenging to follow, it does take some time to become used to. This article will chew this over for you and make it easy for you to format your paper using APA formatting.
The American Psychological Association’s (APA) standard style is extensively used to reference sources in psychology, education, and the social sciences. The essential criteria for the APA style were outlined in a 1929 paper published in Psychological Bulletin.
Researchers and academics writing on psychology can express information about their theories and findings in a consistent way by utilizing the APA style.
Unless you’ve taken a psychology or social science class previously, you’re certainly used to sticking to a different style guide, such as MLA or Chicago style. Furthermore, transitioning from MLA or Chicago style to APA might be difficult yet achievable.
Your paper’s title page takes up the full first page. On the title page, the “running head,” a shorter version of your title, will come before the title, along with your name and the name of your institution, at the top of the page. The name of the supervisor or mentor, course, and department are included at the bottom of the page.
According to APA style, an abstract is a summary of your paper that should be between 150 and 250 words long. It is essential to remember that the length of an abstract varies depending on the needs of the journal or institution.
The body of your paper it’s the actual content, which must be 8.5 inches by 11 inches, written in Time New Romans, size 12, double-spaced.
A reference list at the end of your paper should provide essential information about the sources of your in-text citations. All mentioned sources, as well as bibliographies, must be included in the reference list.
Choose a subject that is particular enough to allow you to completely explore and study it, but not so specialized that you have difficulty finding sources of knowledge.
Begin your research as soon as feasible. Start by reading some essential publications and articles on your subject. Then, make a list of potential sources for the content.
Maintain a precise record of the sources you cite. Ensure that any quotations and citations used in the text are included in the reference list.
Make a rough draft and revise it as many times as needed. Remember to ensure that your paper is coherent and supported by all utilized sources. Double-check for types, spelling mistakes and any other APA format issues.
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Finding the right topic to focus on is critical for a researcher; you must choose a subject that you see the potential to conduct research on and develop valuable, new information that can be employed for a long period of time. You want to select a topic for a research project in which you can see yourself getting funded, or achieving a professional goal that you may have.
Finding a niche is important for new researchers, but it is also a great approach for senior researchers who are modifying or readjusting their path.
Mind The Graph aims to show the importance of finding the right niche research for you to work on in this article, as well as providing helpful tips.
A research niche is a topic in which you choose to become a specialist in the scientific or academic field by performing extensive research, accumulating new findings, and implementing them over a considerable amount of time, say a decade.
Your niche research should incorporate three key elements: your passion, your skills, and the opportunities within the field.
Finding a niche may be as easy as picking what to explore and taking the steps necessary to bring your thoughts into action. Finding the right and successful niche for long-term success, on the other hand, requires far more resources, time, energy, and money.
Smaller niches are less competitive, which might increase the exposure of your research as there aren’t many to be found. However, getting meaningful data might be difficult.
And larger niches are significantly competitive, with a significant amount of data. However, because there is so much research in the niche, your research may go unnoticed.
Hence, these are some considerations you should make while deciding on a niche. The importance stems from the fact that choosing the right niche research might mean the difference between succeeding or failing.
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To solve problems and describe a phenomenon, researchers lean extensively on data. Answers to many questions come from research data. How would you answer a question if there was no information, to begin with? By mining data, you can discover interesting patterns and uncover a wealth of information.
The information they create is influenced by the data they explore, their objectives, and the perspectives of their readers. Researchers should remain unbiased whenever they explore data carefully and remain receptive to unfamiliar trends, concepts, and results. Let’s look at what is research data and what are the categories.
Research data is information gathered, documented, compiled or generated in order to confirm the credibility of initial research results. Research data, including correspondence entries and laboratory records, is often digital, but may also be non-digital.
There’s more to research data than just numbers. Any material used and analyzed for research endeavors are considered research data. The term “research materials” is used more often than “research data” in certain academic fields.
There are many ways to collect research data. There is no limit to the amount of research data that can be derived from one researcher’s work. There are many kinds of data, such as video clips, statistics, graphics, transcriptions, audio files, transcribed interviews, data from experiments, code for programs, and many others.
There are many ways to collect research data. Here are some possibilities:
Sharing data instead of replicating already published research is an advantageous way to build upon the work of fellow researchers. Research topics can also be meta-analyzed through the sharing of data. Public sharing of research findings is now a requirement of many funding agencies and institutions.
The distribution and use of data within the research ecosystem are increased through better data sharing, transparency, and information availability. As a result, public policy and planning can be informed as a result of higher-quality, more accessible facts.
The researcher and research sponsor both benefited from data sharing. It encourages researchers to be better managers of their data and ensure the data is of high quality when their peers and the public have access to them. Data sharing encourages awareness and further research in their fields of expertise. Research sponsors and researchers can benefit from data sharing by raising their visibility and recognition.
The scientific community is largely supportive of data sharing, but it takes a lot of time, effort, and resources to make it happen. To prepare data for sharing, it is important to carefully document the data collection methods and the results of the research.
It is possible to generate research data for a variety of reasons and using multiple methods. A few examples are listed below:
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When writing academically, the most precise choice is most often the right one. When two words can convey the same idea, the shortest and clearest option is usually the wisest.
The process of choosing what to write involves a lot of consideration. Writing a paper requires choosing a topic, selecting a method, selecting resources, and setting up the main idea; then, when it’s time to write, selecting the words and structuring them.
Choosing the right words seems obvious, but selecting the right words will change your writing tone and content. There are several approaches to consciously choosing words, and we will explore them in this article.
There are two types of meanings for words: denotative and connotative. Definition and usage are referred to as denotation. Associating, connecting, and using words are described by their connotations. When it comes to using words in academia, these factors can be very important.
When writing a publication, using the right words is essential to its effectiveness. It is imperative to make choices when writing academically, just as when writing in other forms. The phrase, sentence, or even paragraph that most accurately conveys your argument is the first thing you should choose when you’re writing.
Readers are more likely to understand a concept when the word choice is meaningful or striking. The purpose of it is to provide clarity, convey, and enhance concepts. There are several factors that can limit an author’s ability to convey accurate information through their word choice.
Using the right images is just as important as the right words. Beautiful designs and scientifically accurate images can also be decisive when it comes to publishing a successful science paper. Try using Mind the Graph to easily create your visuals and take your work to another level.
Your reader will have difficulty understanding what you meant when you use misused words or grammar structures. If there is “ambiguity”, “vagueness” or “Unclarity” in these words, they may be ineffective. Writers know what they intend to say, but readers know only what they actually said. Therefore, it is very important to avoid making such mistakes.
Your word choice should always be based on your audience’s understanding. Thus, it is unsuitable to use slang, geographical terms, endearments, and jargon in academic writing. Avoid any phrase that is uncertain about the audience’s understanding.
When proofreading your work, keep your readers’ perspective in mind. Matching the terminology of your subject matter is also important. Clarity and concision are only part of establishing your credibility as an author.
Words can often obscure your meaning if you use too many. A larger amount of material to read and analyze makes it more difficult to read and understand your writing. If your writing has extra words, try to eliminate them.
Keep your tone positive without sounding overly assertive. If you want to brainstorm while you write, you can use the slash/option technique. If you’re stuck on a word or a sentence, write out two or more alternatives. Getting a sense of the right tone of wording for your paper is best done by writing it in at least two ways.
Jargon is an unintuitive, sometimes deliberate way of confusing words or expressions in order to influence a reader’s interpretation. Example: Patients suffered from high fevers and many side effects due to diseases, which they could not handle. (too many words describing the same idea when it could just be a simple sentence,” The disease caused severe symptoms in patients.)
When a phrase becomes so common that its meaning is lost, it is called a cliché. A very typical example is “the grass is always greener on the other side” or “last but not least”, do not use it in academic writing.
Using big words might sound fancy, but they don’t add meaning rather lead to an inability to comprehend a subject.
Appropriate adjectives and adverbs hold quantifiable meanings. Therefore, it is best to use words that describe the context and are accurate.
If your text is too wordy, the reader has to skim through more text to find the main implications of the paper.
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The Florida Department of Health reported 65 Vibrio Vulnificus infections and 11 fatalities following Hurricane Ian. Lee County, where the category 4 hurricane made landfall, accounted for 45% of the occurrences.
Vibrio Vulnificus can cause necrotizing fasciitis, a flesh-eating bacteria. This article will tell you about the condition, the symptoms, and the best treatment technique.
Necrotizing fasciitis is an unusual skin and tissue infection caused by flesh-eating bacteria. It can be lethal if not treated quickly since it spreads quickly and brutally in an infected person.
However, necrotizing fasciitis is a condition that can be cured. Only a few uncommon bacterial strains may cause it, but because these infections spread quickly, the sooner one receives hospital treatment, the higher the odds of survival. The infection can reuse considerable tissue damage by destroying the tissues beneath the skin as well as those surrounding muscles and organs, requiring surgery or amputation in some cases.
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Vibrio Vulnificus is a bacteria, which has a natural habitat in seawater. It can infect people who have open wounds that have been exposed to saltwater, as well as anyone who consumes raw or undercooked seafood that has been infected with the bacteria. During the warmer summer months, the bacteria population grows, and it may also increase if sewage runs into coastal oceans, as happened during Hurricane Ian.
Because Vibrio Vulnificus is a rapidly spreading bacteria that are difficult to identify, a lack of effective health care allows the condition to proceed to necrotizing fasciitis and it has a 33% fatality rate.
The most typical route for bacteria to enter your body is through a cut in your skin, but it can happen if you suffer a trauma that fails to break the skin. A compromised immune system and certain conditions may increase your chances of contracting flesh-eating bacteria as well, for example: diabetes, cancer, cirrhosis, heart disease and many others.
Several kinds of bacteria cause necrotizing fasciitis, but the majority of occurrences are caused by group A strep, or Streptococcus pyogenes.
The initial signs of a flesh-eating bacteria infection generally occur during the first 24 hours of infection. The symptoms are comparable to those of other illnesses such as the flu or a minor skin infection.
To try to stop the infection, doctors can inject antibiotics through a needle into a vein (IV antibiotics). However, antibiotics may be unable to reach the affected area because the bacteria have destroyed too much tissue and compromised the blood flow, necessitating surgery to remove dead tissue. It is not unusual for someone with necrotizing fasciitis to undergo many surgeries.
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One of the most difficult aspects of being a scientist or an academic figure is thinking beyond the box. When conducting research or analyzing a study, it is necessary to put oneself in a position where you must think and evaluate various points of view, hypotheses, and possible conclusions.
That is, no individual, gender, or geographic location can speak or think for everyone. A scientist or an academic must attempt to challenge gender and geographic preconceptions and bring a variety of viewpoints to the field.
Mind The Graph already discussed the impacts of gender bias, and now you will discover more about geographical bias in this piece.
Geographical bias is the biased way in which scientific evaluations are warped depending on the geographical origin of, for example, the offered work rather than its real quality or usefulness.
If compared to economically developed countries, scientific outputs from less developed countries are vastly underappreciated and underutilized.
While this could be attributable to scientific aptitude, research productivity, and the result of the studies, most research from reduced-income countries is probably being rejected early and improperly as a result of a geographical bias towards the country from which the study comes.
Many researchers from less developed countries have expressed concern about having their work and studies rejected owing to geographical bias, simply because they live in a country that is not well-known by the academia.
Geographical bias may have several impacts on research: one of them is that some outstanding studies are not known or utilized, merely because of their country; moreover, a study may be regarded as not good enough because of its country.
According to one study, the participants preferred more biological initiatives from the United States over those from China; therefore, they were more ready to provide funding to Americans.
According to a study conducted in 2004, journals accept more manuscripts from developed nations, such as North America and Europe, whereas Asia had a -89.4% acceptance rate compared to North America and -80.5% compared to Europe.
Geographical bias also has a significant influence on awards, since research from underdeveloped countries tends to win less or no awards at all when compared to studies from developed countries.
According to some, a substantial amount of the world’s scientific achievements are being ignored. There is a tendency in academics that favors North countries, leaving a significant disparity between North and South.
Aside from the preceding examples, there’s also a considerable disparity between citations of North-South areas. When the percentage of academic citations was calculated during a study conducted in 2012, the United States and Europe represented more than 70% of the overall total. While Africa, South America, and Oceania received less than 5% of all academic citations.
Dealing with bias may be difficult and complicated, especially because recognizing that geographical bias exists can be extremely difficult. Finding ways to halt it is a work in progress, and so far, the only successful remedy has been blinding reviewers.
The contribution is delivered to the reviewing process, without the author’s identity or any other personally identifiable information, after an editor of a journal or an individual of a committee analyzes it to see whether it satisfies the requirements and runs a plagiarism test.
Once the reviewing process is complete, they must return it to the editor or individual with remarks or recommendations, as well as a decision to accept it, make minor or major changes, or reject it altogether.
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According to well-known research, “Graphic Details: the Importance of Diagrams in Science,” using an infographic as a visual feature in a publication enhances citations by 120%. Explore some successful cases of Mind The Graph enhancing work in the scientific community.
Elaboration means expanding the sentences to express them with clarity. The elaboration helps to enhance the readers’ understandability and provide clarity to your write-up. Read along the article to understand elaboration sentences and how you can use them in your writing.
Elaboration is the process of explaining a sentence with further details. The addition of details to the given information helps to enhance clarity and make your writing impactful.
Elaborating a sentence depends on the purpose and the need of the audience. Generally, sentences can be elaborated using real-life experiences, definitions, examples, facts, stats, anecdotes, scenarios, quotations, etc.
Example – “Saw one mouse”
The above sentence makes no sense as it doesn’t convey who saw the mouse, when and where they saw it, and why they have seen it.
However, if you elaborate the sentence into
“Jack saw a mouse yesterday near his house as the surroundings were filled with litter.”
The sentence is clear now, conveying that there was litter around Jack’s surroundings. Thus, he saw a mouse nearby.
The rule of thumb for elaborating on a sentence is to ask yourself whether the sentence makes any sense. This will help you convey the whole idea.
Ask Questions – Ask what, why, and how while writing.
These questions help the writer to think about the topic and elaborate sentences. They integrate all the information that’s required to convey the topic effectively.
For instance, let’s talk about Hydroponics.
Assume that you have got a question in your exam asking you to write a short essay about hydroponics. So what would you think of hydroponics?
Will you write two lines describing the word hydroponics and leave it? If you do so, you will lose your score. Then what’s the best way to answer this question?
It’s simple! Elaborate on Hydroponics using the questions “what, why, and how.” By asking these questions, you will be able to cover the following.
And with this, your argument will be complete, covering all the critical information, and will help the reader understand the concept of Hydroponics better.
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Polio is a dangerous viral infection that was formerly widespread across the world. Polio is currently uncommon since vaccination efforts are effective prevention.
In this post, we will discuss the polio symptoms, how the transmission works, the types, and how to treat it.
Polio is a contagious viral infection spread by the poliovirus. The virus travels from person to person and the majority of people experience no or minor symptoms. But in its most aggressive form, it causes nerve damage, paralysis, respiratory problems, and, in extreme circumstances, death. Lifelong paralysis of the limbs or respiratory muscles happens in less than 1% of cases. People who get paralytic with polio will die in 5% to 10% of cases.
It is transmitted by water, food, or contaminated hands. The virus lives in the throat and intestines of an infected person and it enters the body through the mouth. Although the infectious agent may or may not show symptoms, the virus is still spread.
Poliovirus (WPV) is classified into three types: 1, 2, and 3. Type 2 wild poliovirus was declared extinct in September 2015, with the last virus identified in India in 1999. Type 3 wild poliovirus was declared extinct in October 2019. It was spotted most recently in November 2012. Only wild poliovirus type 1 has persisted.
The symptoms of all three strains are the same, however, depending on where the virus replicates and infects, polio might impact your body differently. Check out the following examples:
This is the most common kind of polio. Abortive poliomyelitis includes flu-like and intestinal symptoms. It is simply temporary and has no long-term consequences.
Some individuals who get poliovirus symptoms have this kind of polio that does not cause paralysis. This also causes the same mild, flu-like symptoms as abortive polio. However, it may induce aseptic meningitis, a swelling of the region around your brain that necessitates hospitalization.
This most severe form of the condition is unusual. The first signs and symptoms of paralytic polio, such as fever and headache, are commonly misdiagnosed as nonparalytic polio. After a week, however, more serious signs and symptoms appear.
The poliovirus causes damage to your brain and spinal cord. It has the potential to paralyze the muscles responsible for breathing, speaking, swallowing, and moving your limbs. It’s named spinal polio or bulbar polio depending on which areas of your body are damaged. Spinal and bulbar polio can coexist (bulbospinal polio).
Post-polio syndrome is a combination of debilitating signs and symptoms that can occur years after having polio.
Polioencephalitis is an uncommon form of polio that primarily affects children and involves swelling in the brain.
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The signs of non-paralytic polio are the same as those for abortive polio, however, within a few days, other polio symptoms appear, such as:
Paralytic polio symptoms are similar to those of abortive polio or non-paralytic polio, but it has further symptoms that appear after a few days or weeks.
People must be vaccinated against all three types of the virus to avoid polio, since polio vaccination provides the most effective protection. There are two types of vaccinations: oral polio vaccine and inactivated poliovirus vaccine. In most regions of the world, including the Americas and Europe, the inactive vaccination is the one administered. The live vaccination is only administered in areas where polio still exists naturally.
Health providers recommend four polio shots for children:
Now, if you are an adult who has not been vaccinated:
It’s important to highlight that there are no particular treatments, no cure, and no means to make polio go away faster. If you suffer from paralytic polio, you will be given physical therapy. If your respiratory muscles are weakened or paralyzed, mechanical ventilation will be required to help you breathe. If you have minor symptoms the best way to improve from the symptoms is: to drink fluids, heating packs for muscular pain, a good amount of rest and painkillers if needed.
Brace issues, knee recurvatum, growing weakness caused by overuse, and ankle equinus are the most prevalent long-term problems encountered in polio patients. Approximately 40% of individuals who have had polio will see some recurrence of symptoms as post-polio syndrome.
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