Mind The Graph Scientific Blog is meant to help scientists learn how to communicate science in an uncomplicated way.
It’s time to learn the distinction between a graphical abstract and an infographic, as well as how to apply both.
It has been a time of many reasons to do a 180 in higher education over the past two years. There is no longer a work-life balance (in case there ever was one), administrators seem to lack compassion and understanding, and money seems to take precedence, so many in the field feel discouraged, hurt, and desirous of something different.
Many scientists say that the pandemic forced them to reevaluate their careers and lifestyles. There have been reports throughout the United States that people in all fields of work are tired as universities keep accelerating upwards, but also expect more.
COVID-19 created levels of unforeseen difficulty that were never expected previous to the pandemic, including managing the outbreak, lacking personnel, expanding responsibilities, and trimming budgets.
There is an abundance of fatigue among workers, and many are on the lookout for different options. Statistical evidence suggests that higher education is being negatively impacted by this trend. Throughout this article, we will explore if academics have been affected by the great resignation and how.
More and more, employees have been walking out of their jobs voluntarily in The Great Resignation, which is also commonly referred to as the Big Quit or the Great Reshuffle. The Great Resignation was coined by Anthony Klotz.
Several sources say this trend began around 2020 or early 2021, when employee resignations plummeted following widespread work stoppages caused by COVID-19. In the wake of the pandemic, employees from multiple sectors realized they weren’t completely satisfied with their jobs. It was common for people to leave their jobs due to unsatisfactory work environments, fields, or lack of harmony between work and personal life.
It is also important to note that these types of problems also occur in the academic field of profession. As a result of increasing discontent across various aspects of their job environment, there has been a spike in this category as well.
Researchers were found to be unsatisfied with their jobs in 2021 when Nature surveyed the satisfaction and salary of scientists (nearly two-thirds of whom are academics). There is a deep sense of discontent among mid-career professionals.
An individual can be worn out as a result of much more than just frustration or a challenging project. It is becoming increasingly common for mid-career academics to reevaluate their career paths. Researchers in mid-career expressed dissatisfaction with their present position to a greater extent than those in early or late careers.
Many mid-career scientists expressed extreme dissatisfaction with their career advancement opportunities as a result of uncertainty about their future.
1 researcher in their early professional life and 1 researcher in their late career had similar levels of uncertainty. Scientists in mid-career often have to deal with duties and responsibilities beyond the laboratory, which are not always compensated well.
Many talented people run out of endurance with the university system due to being overwhelmed by administration and bureaucracy, trying to balance research and teaching, and managing parenting.
It is evident from the survey that professors are leaving due to inadequate compensation, excessive workloads, insufficient support, anxiety, physical stress, burnout, toxic work environments, and inadequate treatment.
In the last two years, the academy has faced several challenges or rather has been exposed to many new ones. A practical, effective solution is required for these real problems. A radical change is needed for higher educational institutions.
Realignment is necessary. In other words, an act of compassion. The responsibility of working toward positive change cannot be put on the shoulders of university administrators alone, rather it is a collective responsibility.
Infographics are an excellent way to increase your paper’s readership, bringing up to 27x more citations, so make the most of them. Mind the Graph platform is the perfect place to start creating in a controlled environment made with scientists’ needs in mind.
Academic papers are only influential if they are discoverable, and online discovery is almost entirely reliant on journal indexing. Even the most groundbreaking academic papers will be difficult to find if discovery tools do not correctly index them.
The number of abstracting and indexing services that cover a journal determines its notoriety. Ones that are indexed are believed to be of higher quality than journals that are not.
In this piece, we will discuss the significance of effective journal indexing and how journals that adhere to essential criteria may improve the visibility and influence of their papers.
Indexing is a collection of items gathered for a certain reason. Journal indexing (also known as bibliographic indexes or bibliographic databases) are collections of journal titles grouped by discipline, subject, or publishing type.
Submitting your work to an indexed journal increases its authority and visibility. Non-indexed journals are frequently regarded as having inferior scientific quality than indexed journals. With the emergence of entirely open access journals and online-only journals, determining the trustworthiness of publications and their publishers has grown more challenging.
The existence of a journal in one or more well-known databases indicates the journal’s reliability, and that’s why journal indexing is so important. A variety of indexing alternatives are available to journals, ranging from generic search engines to discipline-specific databases, each with its own set of advantages.
Journals must adhere to some key publication requirements to be included in any academic index. Journals should include the following to fulfill basic indexing requirements:
From there, indexes can have different inclusion criteria, such as:
Consider that different indexes will supply varying levels of additional discovery opportunities. Some databases just index the titles, abstracts, and/or references of papers, whilst others index the complete text. Indexes that absorb more article information and/or complete text will provide improved discovery possibilities in general.
The advantages of each index format for journals are addressed more below.
Search engines are easily accessible to practitioners in each area as well as the general public, instead of being buried in academic databases.
Any journal, regardless of its publishing history, citation count, or other time-bound conditions academic databases may need, can be included in a search engine index. Search engines are excellent indexing starting points since they can be added to it immediately.
Indexes for general search engines will “look” for your paper using computer programs known as “crawlers,” “spiders,” or “bots.” As long as no “no-index” tags are present on any of your journal website pages, your work will be crawlable by search engines.
Google Scholar and Microsoft Academic are the best scholarly search engines to use. Both scholarly search engines have quality control measures in place and take great pains to guarantee that the websites they index are academic sources.
Scholarly search engines may dramatically increase the reach of your journal articles and boost the probability that they will be read, shared, and referenced online. For example, unlike other databases, Google Scholar’s search feature concentrates on individual articles rather than whole journals.
You should also try to have your work included in scholarly indexing databases. Your journals can be uploaded to generic indexing databases that cover all or multiple disciplines, as well as discipline-specific databases.
The following are some of the most prominent general scholarly databases to consider:
Many journals have begun to provide an open access option in response to the recent growth in open access publishing. Open access journals provide several advantages, including increased visibility and faster publishing.
However, as mentioned priorly, with this rise comes ambiguity; there is now a need to identify reliable open access journals, and one method to do so is to look at their indexing status. And, while an indexed journal can provide credibility and reliability, it does not guarantee that the journal will have an impact factor.
The impact factor is a frequently used formula for determining the relative relevance or influence of scientific publications and might be essential for a variety of reasons, including institutional needs or grant funding.
Consider adding a graphical abstract to emphasize your work’s essential ideas and increase its attractiveness if you want to have it published. Mind The Graph tool is great for this; it allows you to quickly generate graphical abstracts and other infographics.
In this case, the author used Mind the Graph to compile figures from different sources in just one place. Aside from the best science accurate illustrations, our workspace has a friendly interface and is very easy to use.
Check the complete original article.
Philipp Königshofer et al. (2021) report that nuclear receptors are ligand-activated transcription factors that regulate gene expression of a variety of key molecular signals involved in liver fibrosis.
Primary cellular driver of liver fibrogenesis is activated hepatic stellate cells. Different nuclear receptors regulate the hepatic expression of pro-inflammatory and pro-fibrogenic cytokines.
This first figure is an overview and classification of nuclear receptors by subfamilies.
Above we can see the different types of nuclear receptor effector function.
On third figure we can check an overview on the reported effects of NR modulations as potential therapeutic approaches against liver diseases.
Arrows indicate the presumed beneficial effects in liver disease by up- (dark green) or down- (light green) regulation of specific mechanisms that were reported to support liver fibrosis regression or to reduce liver fibrosis.
Orange arrows indicate effects and mechanisms of NR modulation that are either controversial or yet insufficiently assessed.
Last figure represents molecular effects of NR modulators as potential treatment for liver fibrosis that are predominantly reported to occur within HSCs.
Königshofer and colleagues propose that further research on nuclear receptors-related signaling may lead to the clinical development of effective anti-fibrotic therapies for patients with liver disease.
Selecting an 1-year option comparison of metrics against other articles/reviews that were also published in the same calendar year in that Journal we can notice that this article was more cited than 57% of them.
Use the power of infographics to boost your article as well. Try Mind the Graph!
For decades, some populations have reported an increase in melanoma incidence worldwide. The neoplasm of melanocytes in the skin, mucosa or uvea is known as melanoma. In spite of its 5% representation in all cutaneous malignancies, it is responsible for more than 75% of all skin cancer deaths.
Although the positive association between UV exposure with melanoma development is well known, the underlying epigenetic mechanisms are largely unexplored in human melanoma tissues. This article will discuss the prognostic cancer driver related to pathobiology and ultraviolet exposure, along with the author’s insights on the aforementioned topic.
Using two independent cohorts of cutaneous melanoma patients, they aim to discover and validate genome-wide methylation alterations linked with UV mutations. A key objective is to investigate the diagnostic potential of DNA methylomes versus transcriptomes and integrated methylome-transcriptomes for distinguishing between UV-mutant and non-UV-mutant cutaneous melanomas.
Using an integrative OMIC approach, the small nucleotide variants (SNVs) and copy number variants (CNVs) of prioritized differentially methylated genes are assessed for cancer driver potential. This research is further supported by another that examines whether DNA methylomes can distinguish pathological and UV-related differences between prominent melanoma variants that are associated with exposure to UV light (cutaneous melanoma) and those that are not (acral melanoma). The diagram in the paper shows what the study’s goal and process are. The graphical representation was created using Mind the Graph.
In clinical biospecimens, UV radiation (UV) has been linked to cutaneous melanoma, but epigenetic mechanisms underlying these mechanisms are yet to be determined. A multi-ethnic cohort of 112 cutaneous melanoma cells was included in this study for clinical, epigenome (DNA methylome), genome and transcriptome profiling. In this study, they identify UV-induced changes in immunological and regulatory pathways that can be cancer drivers across multi-OMICs.
In addition to being the most critically involved gene, TAPBP (Tap binding protein gene) is critically involved in immune function, with several UV-altered methylation sites that have been validated by targeted sequencing providing clinically applicable opportunities. MHC-I interacts with the transporter associated with antigen processing through TAPBP, a member of the immunoglobulin superfamily. A number of cancers have shown a downregulation of the TAPBP (tapasin) protein, which is restored after cytokine exposure.
This suggests that deficient TAPBP expression might be caused by dysregulation rather than structural changes. The researchers found that DNA methylation levels of TAPBP are significantly inversely related to transcription, and that the latter are altered as a result of UV exposure rather than melanoma pathological identity. Neither non UV-mutant cutaneous nor acral melanomas were found to be differentially methylated.
Aside from the findings centered on TAPBP, they found that UV mutations are associated with an array of epigenetic alterations that affect cutaneous melanoma’s methylome. The results indicate that cutaneous melanomas, whether they are UV-mutant or non-UV-mutant, may need to be classified separately even though they are believed to share the same pathological/cellular origin. This is because the epigenomic landscape they are derived from can contain both markers of exposure and cell lineage.
Multiple powerful technologies were applied to cutaneous and acral melanoma samples in this study, including WGS, WES, RNA sequencing, and DNA methylome-wide profiling, along with state-of-the-art bioinformatics tools. The researchers used publicly available data and complemented it with new datasets, which included larger sample sizes, a wider genomic coverage, comprehensive phenotypic assessments, well-preserved frozen tissue samples, and evaluation of melanomas besides cutaneous and ethnicities other than Europeans.
(1) Discovering biomarkers that can be used to stratify cancer risk;
(2) Improved classification of melanoma types within and between them;
(3) Identify molecular drivers that might be responsible for melanomagenesis, which can be targeted in therapy;
(4) Increasing knowledge about melanoma pathobiology to reduce population disparities.
This study provides a roadmap for similar gene-environment investigations in other types of melanoma and covers both common and less frequent melanomas.
It is very interesting and easy to understand this research paper, mainly because of its beautiful graphical illustrations. The graphs were created using the Mind the Graph tool. A graphic illustration can benefit the reader in a variety of ways. You can try leveling up your research by signing up at Mind the Graph for free and trying your first scientific figure.
Do not forget to check out our blog about graphical illustrations and their importance.
This amazing article brings out statistics summarizing data in XTALKDB. In just a few minutes, the author created an infographic explaining the distribution of the species in XTALKDB.
Check the original article here.
Since human beings are visual creatures, images are still the best way to explain your research with as many details as you want.
A research group led by Sarah Sam of the Department of Biological Sciences (2016) reported that the perception of an external signal by receptors causes the activities of intermediate proteins to change.
This results in the regulation of transcription factors, which modulate the expression of target genes. For every pair of pathways, XTalkDB records detailed information describing the experimental conditions under which crosstalk was discovered.
Cells assess and respond to their environment via signaling pathways. A signaling pathway typically contains a well-defined set of regulatory and physical interactions among receptors, intermediate signaling proteins, transcription factors and target genes.
The XTalkDB website provides an easy-to-use interface for scientists to browse crosstalk information by querying one or more pathways or molecules of interest.
There were 650 pairs included in the study.
Discussing possible improvements, “The manual curation process underlying XTalkDB has its limitations, especially as we seek to expand the coverage of the database.
We plan to develop a natural-language processing framework that will rate publications based on their likelihood to document crosstalk. A curator can then focus on highly ranked publications,” they admit.
We can analyze with Altmetric data that this paper is on the top portion of all metrics within all articles funded by the NIH in the Dimensions.
Use the power of infographics to boost your article as well. Try Mind the Graph!
It is feasible to publish papers without the use of outside funding; if you are running observational research or experimental research with a small sample size, you probably can conduct it without the use of outside funding and result in meaningful papers such as case reports, case series, observational studies, or small experimental studies.
If you are undertaking multi-centric research, randomized controlled trials, field experiments, or observational research with large sample numbers, it may be hard to complete the study within the department or institution’s resources, necessitating external funding.
A significant research endeavor needs a workforce and materials, as well as funding to meet these needs. Continue reading to learn why you should apply for funding for research, what types are available, where you can get it, and most crucially, how to apply.
A grant gained for undertaking scientific research, usually through a competitive process, is defined as research funds. Applying for grants and obtaining research funds is an important element of performing research.
The first thing you should know is that the majority of research financing comes from two primary sources: businesses (a pharmaceutical business, for instance) and the government (e.g., from the National Science Foundation, the National Institutes of Health, and so on).
Based on the most recent American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) information, businesses contributed more than 3 times as much as the government to R&D – Research & Development, in 2019 ($463,745 million vs. $138,880 million).
Charitable foundations (e.g., the Breast Cancer Research Foundation, the David and Lucile Packard Foundation, etc.) subsidize a lesser portion of scientific research, particularly in the development of treatments for diseases such as cancer, malaria, and AIDS. In 2019, charitable foundations were responsible for $26,662 million of funding for research.
Funds assist qualifying researchers with money, equipment, or both to conduct approved research or trials. The grantee is in charge of carrying out activities, reporting progress, and preparing results for publishing. The granting organization supervises the use of funds it disburses, although it usually has little participation in the activity itself.
When it comes to funding varieties, there are two categories to consider: commercial and non-commercial funding. Non-commercial fundings are those that seek only acknowledgement, such as charities, government departments, academies, institutes (e.g., National Institute of Health), and commercial fundings are those that will benefit from the research, such as pharmaceutical companies that want to demonstrate the benefits of a certain drug or understand market gaps.
There are four major types of grant financing within these two categories, as outlined below:
Managing the grant application procedure is surely intimidating for individuals joining the scientific community, especially when there are so many government agencies, businesses and charities, each with its own financing schemes and deadlines. Finding appropriate funds to apply for may be a challenge as a whole.
The most essential characteristic is a strong interest in the subject, a thorough comprehension of the subject, and the capacity to recognize knowledge gaps.
The second characteristic is to decide if your research can be completed with internal resources or requires external funding. The following step is to discover funding opportunities that can provide funds for your subject, prepare a research grant proposal, and submit it on time.
Although each funding opportunity will have its own (typically extremely precise) standards, there are some aspects of a research grant proposal that are generally conventional, and they frequently appear in the sequence listed below:
Check out how to format a research paper step by step to satisfy these requirements. There are some helpful tips for your title page, abstract, introduction, literature review, and project narrative that can help you produce your research grant proposal properly.
We’ve compiled a list of the greatest websites for finding financing alternatives.
Grants.gov allows researchers to search for grant possibilities from the most prominent R&D federal funding organizations in the United States. Free-to-use.
You’ve probably heard of the National Institute of Health if you work in biomedical research. You may search their website for any of their grants. They give funds to early scientific scientists and new investigators. Free-to-use.
CRDF Global is an autonomous, non-profit organization focusing on scientific cooperation and initiatives targeted at addressing global concerns such as global health, nuclear, biological, and chemical security, and water, food, and energy. Grants are available to scientists and innovators in over 40 countries. Free-to-use.
For those looking for research funding programs, ResearchResearch offers an international alternative. However, a paid subscription is required for access.
Throughout the year, the National Science Foundation gives a range of grants. The NSF funds around 24% of all government funded fundamental research. Free-to-use.
Although it may not appear so, financing may influence which research subjects are handled and what research outcomes are generated. The ideal is for funding to be primarily financial and impartial, but this is rarely the case when it includes businesses; fundings frequently include biases.
For example, as previously exemplified, a pharmaceutical company-funded research may sponsor a study that benefits the drug industry. And that would hardly apply to a government grant or a charitable fund.
Is this to say you should shun commercial funding? No, these companies provide vital support for scientific research; nonetheless, studies financed by businesses or special interest organizations must be handled with caution to avoid any type of conflict of interest. Read this article to learn more about how a conflict of interest might affect your research and career, and how to avoid it: Conflict of Interest in Research: What Is It and How It Can Impact.
Learn the importance of including infographics in your research if you want to deliver more relevant data, broaden your research’s audience, and stand out from the crowd. Research articles containing Graphical Abstracts have 15x times higher citations than those that haven’t as per CACTUS analysis for articles published in the American Academy of Neurology.
Check out our website and have access to the world’s largest gallery of scientifically accurate Illustrations using the Mind The Graph tool.
It could be a little difficult to explain the crotoxin’s anti-inflammatory modulation without the proper images, but that’s why Mind the Graph exists!
In ‘Immunotherapeutic potential of Crotoxin’, Marco Sartim et al. (2018) noted that for the past 80 years, Crotoxin has become one of the most investigated isolated toxins from snake venoms.
Crotoxin is the main toxic component in the venom of the South American rattlesnake Crotalus durissus terrificus. Studies have shown that C.d.t. immunomodulatory effect is associated with the production of anti-inflammatory mediators.
The capacity of Crotoxin and its subunits to modulate the immune system introduced novel perspectives as potential therapeutic agents.
The researchers reviewed 161 articles.
Check original article here.
The author used the Mind the Graph platform to create a schematic figure on circulation, tissue and cellular events modulated by Crotoxin and its subunits during the inflammatory stimulus.
The author also detailed the blood circulation, lymph node homing of lymphocytes and cellular events associated with the immunosuppressive effects of Crotoxin and its subunits.
This is the power of infographics!
The authors’ conclusions appear to consolidate prior work in this area: “Crotoxin was able to suppress specific anti-HSA IgG1 and IgG2a antibody production from HAS-immunized mice, indicating its capacity to modulate Th1 and Th2 responses,” Sartim claimed.
We can analyze with Altmetric data that this paper had more citations than 84% of other articles from Springer Nature.
Use the power of infographics to boost your article as well. Try Mind the Graph!
For scientists, publishing a research paper is a huge accomplishment; they typically spend a large amount of time researching the appropriate subject, the right material, and, most importantly, the right place to publish their hard work. To be successful in publishing a research paper, it must be well-written and meet all of the high standards.
Although there is no quick and easy method to get published, there are certain manuscript writing strategies that can help earn the awareness and visibility you need to get it published.
In this Mind The Graph step by step tutorial, we give practical directions on how to write a manuscript for a research paper, to increase your research as well as your chances of publishing.
A manuscript is a written, typed, or word-processed document submitted to a publisher by the researcher. Researchers meticulously create manuscripts to communicate their unique ideas and fresh findings to both the scientific community and the general public.
Overall, the manuscript must be outstanding and deeply represent your professional attitude towards work; it must be complete, rationally structured, and accurate. To convey the results to the scientific community while complying with ethical rules, scientific articles must use a specified language and structure.
Furthermore, the standards for title page information, abstract structure, reference style, font size, line spacing, margins, layout, and paragraph style must also be observed for effective publishing. This is a time-consuming and challenging technique, but it is worthwhile in the end.
The first step in knowing how to write a manuscript for a research paper is understanding how the structure works.
A poorly chosen title may deter a potential reader from reading deeper into your manuscript. When an audience comes across your manuscript, the first thing they notice is the title, keep in mind that the title you choose might impact the success of your work.
Abstracts are brief summaries of your paper. The fundamental concept of your research and the issues you intend to answer should be contained within the framework of the abstract. The abstract is a concise summary of the research that should be considered a condensed version of the entire article.
The purpose of the research is disclosed in the body of the introduction. Background information is provided to explain why the study was conducted and the research’s development.
The technical parts of the research have to be thoroughly detailed in this section. Transparency is required in this part of the research. Colleagues will learn about the methodology and materials you used to analyze your research, recreate it, and expand concepts further.
This is the most important portion of the paper. You should provide your findings and data once the results have been thoroughly discussed. Use an unbiased point of view here; but leave the evaluation for your final piece, the conclusion.
Finally, explain why your findings are meaningful. This section allows you to evaluate your results and reflect on your process. Remember that conclusions are expressed in a succinct way using words rather than figures. The content presented in this section should solely be based on the research conducted.
The reference list contains information that readers may use to find the sources you mentioned in your research. Your reference page is at the end of your piece. Keep in mind that each publication has different submission criteria. For effective reference authentication, journal requirements should be followed.
It is not only about the format while writing a successful manuscript, but also about the correct strategy to stand out above other researchers trying to be published. Consider the following steps to a well-written manuscript:
Many journals offer a Guide for Authors kind of document, which is normally printed yearly and is available online. In this Guide for Authors, you will discover thorough information on the journal’s interests and scope, as well as information regarding manuscript types and more in-depth instructions on how to do the right formatting to submit your research.
The section on methods and materials is the most important part of the research. It should explain precisely what you observed in the research. This section should normally be less than 1,000 words long. The methods and materials used should be detailed enough that a colleague could reproduce the study.
The second most crucial aspect of your manuscript is the findings. After you’ve stated what you observed (methods and materials), you should go through what you discovered. Make a note to organize your findings such that they make sense without further explanation.
In this part you need to produce the face and body of your manuscript, so do it carefully and thoroughly.
Ensure that the title page has all of the information required by the journal. The title page is the public face of your research and must be correctly structured to meet publication requirements.
Write an introduction that explains why you carried out the research and why anybody should be interested in the results (ask yourself “so what?”).
Concentrate on creating a clear and accurate reference page. As stated in step 1, you should read the author’s guide for the journal you intend to submit to thoroughly to ensure that your research reference page is correctly structured.
The abstract should be written just after the manuscript is finished. Follow the author’s guide and be sure to keep it under the word limit.
Now that you’ve completed the key aspects of your research, it’s time to double-check everything according to the Rapid Rejection Criteria. The “Rapid Rejection Criteria” are errors that lead to an instantaneous rejection. The criteria are:
Rewrite your manuscript now that you’ve finished it. Make yourself your fiercest critic. Consider reading the document loudly to yourself, keeping an ear out for any abrupt breaks in the logical flow or incorrect claims.
Aside from a step-by-step guide to writing a decent manuscript for your research, Mind The Graph includes a specialized tool for creating and providing templates for infographics that may maximize the potential and worth of your research. Check the website for more information.
The Disabled spheroid and organoid formation by FGFR-inhibition in patient-derived CRC cells is much easier to understand using Mind the Graph’s illustrations.
The scheme created by the author shows that the surgical biopsies were enzymatically digested to obtain a suspension of single cells. The naïve unsorted cells were cultured in FGF2 containing CSC-medium or with the FGFR-inhibitor SU-5402.
In ‘FGF Signalling in the Self-Renewal of Colon Cancer Organoids’, Jörg Otte and colleagues (2019) reported that when naïve single cells were embedded in Matrigel and cultured in the CSC-medium, a more complex self-organization was observed in all patients analysed.
Genes directly associated with EMT together with a mesenchymal and self-renewing phenotype (TGFB3, ID1, ID2 and ID4) were found to be overexpressed in organoids.
While FGFR-inhibition led to an enhanced MAPK signalling, they observed induced differentiation, a loss of most stem cell markers and an epithelial phenotype.
Cancer stem cells are a subpopulation of malignant cells able to self-renew and to serve as an ongoing source for differentiated tumour cells. In some protocols of CSC culture, Fibroblast growth factor 2 is an important ingredient for maintaining stemness.
In CSC-medium cultured organoids, on the other hand, they detected induction of TGF-β and of all four members of the inhibitor-of-differentiation gene family.
9 consecutive unselected CRC patients were involved in the research.
Check the original article here.
Some of their conclusions potentially strengthen what was previously known about this field: “The pluripotency-associated genes NANOG, LIN28 and SALL1 were exclusively expressed by hESCs. The GO-terms “negative regulation of BMP signaling pathway” and “SMAD protein signal transduction” were detected in our hESC culture,” Otte suggested.
The authors admit that “GO-term analysis of this gene-set yielded only few significant results due to the low number of commonly regulated genes. Most of these GO-terms for the CSC-medium condition were associated with active transcription, cell proliferation or increased glucose uptake.
After FGFR-inhibition, we found cell-cycle regulators as well as many genes annotated with “epithelial cell differentiation”, “digestion” or “bile acid and bile salt transport”.”
We can analyze with Altmetric data that this paper’s online attention score is higher than 68% of all other articles of a similar age in Scientific Reports.
Improve your article’s accessibility with the power of infographics as well.
Science is the foundation to understand the happenings around us. Without science, there would be millions of things unknown and undiscovered.
Experimentation and the rigorous research carried out by scientists have unveiled the answers to many questions and become the root of innovations. But until the past few years, only novel and exciting research were published and this hindered the advancement of science. To bridge this void, open science was introduced.
Read along the article to uncover the answers to what is open science and why it is important.
Open science is a modern approach to carrying out scientific research and disseminating knowledge transparently and collaboratively. It is data-savvy that helps to bridge the knowledge divide by using technology and innovation and makes it easier for people to get involved in science and carry out research.
Open science enhances the scope for advancement in science by identifying the gaps and problems from previous research and sharing information and knowledge among the scientists.
The genome project carried out in 1990 is a popular example of open science where the principles of sharing information and collaboration among the scientists were followed to improve the quality and efficiency of the project.
Open science is an umbrella encompassing the following pillars.
Open science is not a new concept. The principles of open science came into practice in the 17th with the introduction of scientific journals where the scientists followed the practice of repeating the experiments, but it wasn’t widely accepted.
The traditional research practices would possess a rigorous process of experimentation and the results of this research were then made available to use through research papers which demonstrated the success and authority of the scientist. This made the process highly competitive and confidential among the scientists, leaving no place for a collaborative approach.
To address these gaps in the research, the center of open science started the open science practices in 2013, and the focus was drawn towards three major factors i.e., openness, integrity, and reproducibility. The term “Open Science” was coined recently and was popularized when it was used in a report by the European Commission “science 2.0: Science in transition” in 2014.
|Sci-hub is an online search engine that provides academic articles and research papers for free||Open science is the movement to make scientific research accessible to all communities|
|It was launched in 2011 by Alexandra Ebakyan||Open science practices started in the 17th century with the advent of scientific journals but were popularised in 2014|
|The goal of sci-hub is to spread knowledge by allowing more people to access paywalled content for free||The goal of open science is to make the information accessible to carry out further research and is based on the principles of openness, relatability and reproducibility|
Explore science like never before by using an amazing infographic tool that makes your research work easy, fun, and presentable. Wait no more and sign up to Mind the Graph for free and enjoy the exclusive scientific content created by scientists to scientists.
X-ray microtomography has emerged as a new method for deciphering the cytoarchitecture and connectivity of the brain, and here we present a method for imaging whole neurons.
In ‘High-resolution synchrotron-based X-ray microtomography as a tool to unveil the three-dimensional neuronal architecture of the brain’, Matheus de Castro Fonseca et al. (2018) noted that the study of neurons as individualized unities has its beginning in the 19th century with the creation of the Neuron Doctrine.
In the last few years, great efforts have been made to understand neuronal organization and connectivity in intact brain samples. The Golgi-Cox labeling technique offers suitable contrast for the specific labeling of neurons for X-ray microtomography.
Neurons have distinct morphology and specific patterns of connectivity, which are essential for their proper functioning. The researchers present a method of imaging combining synchrotron-based X-ray microtomography with the Golgi-Cox impregnation protocol.
The method offers a higher and more homogeneous contrast of relatively sparsely distributed whole neurons within the tissue.
Brains were incubated in Golgi-Cox staining solution for 14 days, protected from light. After the incubation period, brains were serially sectioned using a vibratome.
Check the original article here.
The author used Mind the Graph to create a schematic illustration that represents an adult mice being i.p. injected with saline or pilocarpine solution (280 mg/kg). Representing complex process with infographics is a good way to make them easily understandable, without leaving aside the details and crucial information.
Some of the researchers’ results seem to consolidate what was previously known about this area: “The mercury-based neuron impregnation showed here, allowed us to clearly define whole neurons mainly because of a more continuous and homogeneous impregnant of the cells and much reduced density of artifacts,” de Castro Fonseca suggested.
We can analyze with Altmetric data that this paper’s online attention score is higher than 64% of all other articles of a similar age in Scientific Reports.
Improve your article’s accessibility with the power of infographics as well.
It is essential to comprehend the significance of a sigmoid pattern or function, regardless of whether you build your own neural network or construct a model of yeast growth. Learning complex problems is explained by the sigmoid function and growth curves.
Dry mass is a more consistent indicator of growth when measuring growth. Our measurements of growth are typically based on how much we gain in height or weight since you cannot simply evaporate an organism.
As a result, sigmoid functions enable numerical parameter estimation because they are differentiable. Let’s take a look at what a sigmoid pattern or function is in this blog.
It is important to note that many organisms undergo several distinctive phases of growth during their lifetime. A measurable size or weight variable over time can be used to quantify such patterns.
A sigmoid pattern is commonly observed in conditions that are generally consistent, and where a variable successively increases exponentially, then linearly, and at last asymptotically. An S-shaped curve, or sigmoid function, can be seen when plotted.
The normal distribution is included in sigmoid curves along with many other cumulative distribution functions. A neural network uses them as an activation function as well.
Due to the monotonicity, continuity, and differentiation of the sigmoid function, along with its derivative, it is straightforward to formulate and update equations for learning different parameters.
A possible growth trajectory is represented by an s-curve when plotting the size of a population against time. To understand an organism’s life cycle, we need to consider this aspect.
Additionally, sigmoid functions can be employed in neural networks for modeling complex decision functions since non-linear functions result in non-linear limits.
There will be three primary phases to the curve, an accelerated stage/period, a transitional stage/period, and a plateau stage/period.
In the early stages, population growth would be relatively slow (lag period) since few reproductive individuals would be broadly dispersed.
As natality surpasses mortality, population size is steadily growing. Energy is abundant, and climate resistance is minimal, which results in poor mortality rates.
Due to population growth, resources become scarcer, causing a struggle for survival. There is a slowdown in population growth as a result of decreasing natality rates and increasing death rates.
Eventually, the rising death rate will equal the production of new organisms, so population growth will plateau.
As a result of restricting forces, the population has outgrown the environment’s ability to cope with the increase. It is likely that the population size will not be steady at this point, but will fluctuate around the carrying capacity to maintain even numbers.
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